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Home > News > Content
Steaming Machine Signification Sep 27, 2017

A steam engine is a reciprocating power machine that converts the energy of steam into mechanical work. The advent of the steam engine led to the industrial revolution of the 18th century. Until the early 20th century, it was still the most important original motive in the world, and then gradually gave way to internal combustion engines and steam turbines.

A steam engine requires a boiler that causes water to boil and produce high pressure steam. The boiler can use wood, coal, oil or natural gas or even combustible garbage as a heat source. Steam expands the pistons to do work.

structure

The steam engine mainly consists of cylinder, base, piston, crank connecting rod mechanism, slide valve and steam mechanism, speed regulating mechanism and flywheel. The cylinder and base are still parts.

In a steam boiler, the water boils to steam through the combustion process. Steam is sent through the pipe to the cylinder. The valve controls the time when the steam reaches the cylinder, through the main steam valve and the throttle valve into the sliding valve chamber, and the slide valve controls alternately to the left or right of the cylinder to drive the piston movement. The steam pushes the piston to work in the cylinder, and the cooled steam is recondensed into water through the pipe. This process is repeated during the steam engine.

A general steam engine consists of three cylinders. The steam engine converts the piston up and down to the rotation of the ship's axis. The new steam engine also contains a small turbine, and steam from the cylinder can also use its afterheat to drive the turbine to improve the efficiency of the entire drive. The turbine is also connected to the ship's propeller shaft.

classification

Classification of the boiler

Fire tube shapes are used in the early boiler of ships and steam locomotives. In a fire tube boiler, the smoke from the combustion chamber is discharged through the chimney through the flue. This kind of boiler needs a tall chimney.

Water pipes are heated by hot air through multiple pipes. These pipes flow into a steam collection chamber at the top of the switch. An important advantage of water tube boiler is it when the damage caused by the risk is small, because the quantity of the water in the boiler is small, and there is little can be worn in the boiler movement of the mechanical part of some water tube boiler on the smoke evacuation and a heat exchanger to improve the thermal efficiency of boiler.

Steam engine classification

Steam engine can be divided into single action and double acting by steam on the piston side or both sides.

According to cylinder arrangement, can be divided into vertical and horizontal; According to steam, expansion in one cylinder or successively in multiple cylinders can be divided into single expansion type and multiple expansion. According to the flow of steam in the cylinder, it can be divided into flow type and single flow.

According to exhaust steam and exhaust pressure can be divided into condensing, atmospheric type and backpressure type.

efficacy

The development of steam engine is firstly reflected in the improvement of power and efficiency, which mainly depends on the improvement of steam parameters. The steam pressure of the steam engine was only 0.11 ~ 0.13 MB in the early stage of the steam engine, and at the beginning of the 19th century, it reached 0.35 ~ 0.7mb. In the 1920s, it was used for 6 ~ 10 mpa. On the steam temperature, the end of the 19th century also does not exceed 250 ℃, and to use 450 ~ 480 ℃ in the 1930 s.

efficiency

As for efficiency, the steam engine running continuously in the first phase of watt is not more than 3% of the total efficiency of fuel calorimeter. By 1840, the best condensing steam engines could have a total efficiency of 8%. By the 20th century, the steam engine could be more than 20% efficient.

speed

At the turn of speed, at the end of the 18th century, the watt steam engine was only 40 ~ 50 RPM; At the beginning of the 20th century, the rotational speed reached 100 ~ 300 revolutions per minute, and individual steam engines reached 2500 revolutions per minute. In terms of power, the initial single-machine power was only a few horsepower, and a Marine steam engine at the beginning of the 20th century could have as much as 25,000 horsepower.

With the increase of steam parameters and power, steam cannot continue to expand in a cylinder and must continue to expand in the connected cylinder, resulting in a multistage expansion of the steam engine. Steam engine by the limitation of lube oil flash point, the highest temperature of the steam used generally does not exceed 400 ℃, motorcycle, Marine and other portable steam engine is slightly lower, most is not higher than 350 ℃. Given the possibility of expansion and the economy of the structure, the usual pressure is below 2.5 MB. The steam parameters are limited, which also limits the power of the steam engine.

signification

The emergence of the steam engine and improving promoted the social and economic development, but at the same time, the development of economy in turn to the steam engine put forward higher requirements, such as steam engine power, high efficiency, light weight, small size, etc. Although people of steam engine made many improvements, and constantly expand the scope of its use and improve its performance, but with the development of the steam turbine and internal combustion engine, steam engine gradually decline due to insurmountable weaknesses.