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Steaming Machine Classification Sep 14, 2017

The steam engine is a reciprocating power machine that converts the energy of the steam into mechanical work. The emergence of the steam engine has caused the 18th century industrial revolution. Until the beginning of the 20th century, it was still the most important motive in the world, and later gradually let the internal combustion engine and steam turbine.

The steam engine needs a boiler that boils water to produce high-pressure steam, which can use wood, coal, oil or natural gas and even combustible waste as a heat source. Steam expansion drives the piston to work.

Structure: The turbine is mainly composed of cylinder, base, piston, crank connecting rod mechanism, slide valve with steam mechanism, speed control mechanism and flywheel and other parts. The cylinder and the base are stationary

In a steam boiler, the water is boiled into steam by burning. Through the pipeline steam was sent to the cylinder. The valve controls the time the steam reaches the cylinder, enters the slide valve chamber through the main steam valve and the throttle valve, and enters the left or right side of the cylinder alternately by the spool valve to push the piston movement. Steam in the cylinder to push the piston work, cooling the steam through the pipeline was introduced into the condenser to re-condense into water. This process is repeated during the steam engine movement.

The general steam engine has three cylinders to form a group. The steam engine directly converts the up and down movement of the piston into the rotary motion of the axle. The new steam engine also contains a small turbine, the steam from the cylinder can also use its waste heat in the promotion of the turbine to improve the efficiency of the entire drive device. The turbine is also connected to the propeller shaft of the ship.


Boiler classification

The fire tube was used in the early ships and steam locomotives. In a fire tube boiler, the hot smoke coming out of the combustion chamber is discharged from the chimney through the flue. This boiler requires a relatively high chimney.

Water pipes are heated by hot air through multiple pipes. These pipes flow into the steam collection chamber at the top of the exchanger. An important advantage of a water pipe boiler is that it is less dangerous when it is damaged because the amount of water in the boiler is relatively small, and there is not much mechanical part of the motion that will be worn in the boiler, There is also a heat exchanger on the road to improve the thermal efficiency of the entire boiler.

Classification of steam engines

According to the steam on the piston side or both sides of the work, the steam engine can be divided into single action and double

Two kinds of action;

According to the cylinder arrangement, can be divided into vertical and horizontal; according to the steam is a cylinder in the expansion or in turn continuous expansion in a number of cylinders, can be divided into single expansion and expansion; by steam in the cylinder flow , Can be divided into reflux and single flow;

According to the exhaust steam and exhaust pressure can be divided into condensing, atmospheric and back pressure.


The biggest advantage of modern steam engines is that it can use almost all of the fuel to convert thermal energy into mechanical energy. Unlike the internal combustion engine, it is not critical of its fuel. In addition there is no steam engine, then the atomic energy can not be used. Atomic reactors do not directly produce mechanical energy, and do not directly generate electricity, the atomic reactor is actually only heated water, the water is boiling steam through the steam engine to be converted into useful work. Steam does not necessarily need to be produced by combustion, such as the use of solar heaters can also produce steam to promote the steam engine.

Another small-sized external combustion engine with similar advantages is the Stirling engine. The downside is that it is difficult to run in many cases.

Especially in the mountains, the advantages of steam locomotives are significant, because they can also operate at relatively low air pressure. This will be found when South America will replace its steam locomotives with diesel-electric locomotives. In the mountains they had to give up the use of relatively high power diesel locomotives, replaced by power, but not as diesel locomotives but not by sea limit steam locomotive.

The use of modern steam engines in Swiss and Austrian new railroad rails requires only one person to run, saving 60% more fuel than the previous steamer, 50% lighter than the electric and diesel engines, The wear is much smaller. There is also a new steam engine boat on Lake Geneva, the world's first remote control steam engine.


Steam engine weakness is: can not do without the boiler, the whole device is both cumbersome and bulky; new steam pressure and temperature can not be too high, the exhaust pressure can not be too low, thermal efficiency is difficult to improve; it is a reciprocating machine, inertia limit the speed The work process is not continuous, the steam flow is limited, also limits the power of the increase.

Therefore, abandoned the bulky engine of the internal combustion engine, and ultimately its light weight, small size, high thermal efficiency and flexible operation, etc., in the ship and the locomotive gradually replaced the steam engine. Steam turbine with its high thermal efficiency, single power, high speed, light weight per unit power and smooth operation, etc., the steam engine out of the power station.

Then the motor and its easy to use, instead of the steam engine in industrial equipment applications. However, the thermal efficiency of the low-power steam engine is higher than that of the steam turbine, so the steam engine still has the room to play a role in the coal producing area or in the areas where only the inferior fuel is in the area or some special occasions.